M44

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M44.jpg


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Russia/USSR Mosin Nagant

General Specifications Model M44 Carbine General Description:

Weight -- 9 lbs.(4.1 kg)
Length (over all) -- 40" (101.6 cm)
Barrel Length -- 20 1/4" (51.4 cm)
Stock length -- 36 1/2" (92.7 cm)
Sight Radius -- 16 1/2" (41.9 cm)

  • Manufactured from 1943 to 1948 at the Izhevsk arsenal.
  • Manufactured in 1944 at the Tula Arsenal.
  • Unlike any of the other Soviet carbines, the M44 has a permanently attached side-folding bayonet.
  • Also manufactured by multiple countries after World War Two ended. See: M44 (other countries)
  • Length of sight base: 2-1/4" (versus the M1891/30 (M91/30) at 3")
  • Length of cleaning rod (below head): 17-1/4" (verus the M1891/30 (M91/30) at 25-3/4")


The Red Army needed a shorter rifle, better suited to modern combat than the M91/30. Since the bayonet was still seen as an important part of the Soviet soldier's equipment, the M38 did not meet the need. The M1944 (M44), a new carbine based on the M38 was developed. The only major difference between the M38 and the new M44 was the addition of a side-folding bayonet. The Izhevsk Arsenal began production of the M44 in 1943, with 50,000 carbines built for combat testing. The M44 was officially adopted in 1944.

Production numbers for the M44 are estimated as:

Izhevsk
1943: 50,000
1944: 3,620,000
1945: 3,472,245
1946: 189,027
1947: 120,061
1948: 160,498

Tula
1944: 100,000


M44model 001 (1).JPG

7,62 mm Carbine, Model of the Year 1944 - Tula Arsenal


General Features:


As the M44 was based on the design of the M38, the major difference is the attached folding cruciform (tri-fluted) bayonet. The flat back side rests against the stock when locked rearward, and the stock has a recess cut into the right side to accommodate.

Integral Folding bayonet Locked Forward
M44feature3 007.jpg
M44feature3 008.jpg


Typical Barrel Shank Markings Found on the M44



Izhevsk M44, 1943-1948 Tula M44, 1944
M44feature1 016.jpg
M44feature1 015.jpg

Refer to Barrel Shank Marks link for a more complete listing.


Receiver Variations



All M44 production took place after the Soviets had adopted the Round Receiver as the platform for the Mosin Nagant. In general, early production utilized the High Wall receiver, and late production utilized the Low Wall receiver. However, a small percentage of M44's can be found with Hex Receivers or Round Receivers with earlier tang dates than 1943, and presumably taken from the M91/30 when damaged barrels were scrapped.


M44 Round High Wall receiver: Tula 1944, and Izhevsk 1943 to early 1945. M44 Round Low Wall receiver: Izhevsk from late 1945 to 1948 M44 Hex Receiver: Either arsenal (uncommon)
M44model 012.jpg
M44model 013.jpg
Receiver variations 005.jpg



Sight Styles, Barrel Sleeve and Bayonet Lug



Rear Sight


Unlike the M91 and M91/30 with the dovetail base, the M44 rear sight attachment is nearly identical to the M38 design, as a band around the rear of the barrel, and pinned into place. The major difference is a slight convex curve over the elevation slider travel, and forward rounded ears for the leaf pin placement. The rear sight leaf is graduated 1 to 10, in hundreds of meters, for a range of 1,000 meters.


M44 Rear Sight Leaf and Slider: M44 Rear Sight, side view M38 Rear Sight Base/Band and pin, for comparison.
M44model 014.jpg
M44feature1 003.jpg
M38 rear sight.jpg



Front Sight


The Front sight, like the M91/30 and M38, is a post and globe which is attached to a dovetail on the front barrel sleeve, which also serves as a bayonet lug. Early front sights are the same width as the M91/30 and M38, and can be of a single piece milled globe, or a two piece stamped and spot welded globe. Late front sights are a wider single piece milled globe, and are fitted to the second pattern front barrel sleeve.


M44 Early front sight: Two piece globe, narrow base M44 Early front sight: One piece globe, narrow base M44 Late front sight: One piece milled globe, wide base
M44model 010.jpg
M44feature1 002.jpg
M44model 011.jpg


Front Barrel Sleeve: Dovetail Sight Base, Bayonet Lug, and Lock Ring Collar


The first pattern Front Barrel Sleeve has a narrow dovetail sight base, and a Single Eared Bayonet Lug. The mating Lock Ring Collar has a concave (female) latching mechanism.

The second pattern Front Barrel Sleeve has a wide dovetail sight base, and a Double Eared Bayonet Lug. The mating Lock Ring Collar has a convex (male) latching mechanism.


M44 First pattern 'Single Eared Lug' Front Barrel Sleeve and Concave Lock Ring Collar M44 Second pattern 'Double Eared Lug' Front Barrel Sleeve and Convex Lock Ring Collar
M44model 007.jpg
M44model 008.jpg


Lock Ring Variations

Straight Ring: No Bevel, No Shoulder Ground Bevel inside Cylinder, Shoulder Milled Bevel inside Cylinder, Shoulder Minimal Bevel inside Cylinder, Shoulder Open Notch Outside Cylinder, No Bevel, No Shoulder
M44features2 001.jpg
M44features2 003.jpg
M44features2 004.jpg
M44features2 007.jpg
M44features2 005.jpg


Stock Features, Barrel Bands, and Sling Slot Variations



Stocks

Stocks are found in solid birch and laminated birch. The earliest stocks were solid, later stocks can be either solid or laminate. Below are many variations.


Solid Buttstock Solid Buttstock with Toe Splice
M44feature1 013.jpg
M44feature1 014.jpg


Laminate Buttstock with Laminate Splice Laminate Buttstock with Solid Splice
M44feature1 009.jpg
M44feature1 011.jpg


Bayonet Relief Cut: Solid Stock Bayonet Relief Cut: Laminated Stock
M44feature3 002.jpg
M44feature3 001.jpg


No Wrist Crossbolt (Laminated or Solid) Solid Stock with Wrist Crossbolt Laminate Stock with Wrist Crossbolt
M44feature1 010.jpg
M44feature1 012.jpg
M44feature1 008.jpg


No Barrel Band Relief Cut: Solid Stock, uncommon Small Barrel Band Relief Cut: Solid Stock Large Barrel Band Relief Cut: Solid Stock Large Barrel Band Relief Cut: Laminated Stock
M44feature3 003.jpg
M44feature3 004.jpg
M44feature3 005.jpg
M44feature3 006.jpg


Milled Steel Buttplate: Machined Countersink Milled Buttplate: Flat, under side Stamped Steel Buttplate: Stamped Countersink Stamped Buttplate: Protruding, under side
M44feature3 009.jpg
M44feature3 010.jpg
M44feature3 011.jpg
M44feature3 012.jpg


Barrel Bands
Barrel bands and retainer springs are consistent throughout production and refurbishment.

Rear Split Barrel Band and Stamped Steel Retainer Spring Front Split Barrel Band and Stamped Steel Retainer Spring
M44feature1 005.jpg
M44feature1 006.jpg


Sling Slots

The two sling slot variations are pictured below. First, war-time stocks have no escutcheon in the rear, and a half liner in the front. Late war and post-war stocks have pressed escutcheons on both front and rear.

War Time: No Escutcheon Rear War Time: Half Liner Escutcheon Front Late and Post-War: Pressed Full Escutcheon Rear Late and Post-War: Pressed Full Escutcheon Front
M44model 003.jpg
M44model 004.jpg
M44model 005.jpg
M44model 006.jpg

Model M44 Carbine Configurations



1. Features (present on trial carbine): Integral folding bayonet. Round, high wall receiver. First pattern front barrel sleeve w/narrow front Sight Base, and Single Ear bayonet lug. Concave recess on locking ring collar. War Time Stock with no rear sling slot escutcheon and half-liner front sling slot. Narrow front sight and base

Configuration One (first production). Manufactured at Izhevsk in 1943 to early 1945, Tula in 1944.
M44model 001 (1).JPG



2. Features (Eliminated/Added): Eliminated high wall receiver, and added low wall receiver. Eliminated first pattern front barrel sleeve w/narrow front Sight Base, and Single Ear bayonet lug. Added second pattern front barrel sleeve w/wide front Sight Base, and Double Ear bayonet lug. Eliminated concave lock ring collar, and added convex lock ring collar. Post-war Stock with full pressed sling slot escutcheons at both new production and refurbishment.

Configuration Two. Manufactured at Izhevsk from late 1945 to 1948.
M44model 002.jpg



1 or 2. Features (Eliminated/Added): Same as either above, except with laminated stock - which saw limited action during war time, and was also installed post-war or at refurbishment.

Configuration One and Two - Variation. Manufactured at Izhevsk from late 1945 to 1948.
M44feature1 001.jpg


  • Variant #1 : Description #1


  • Variant #2 : Description #2













Article written by Izhevsk762, Wiki Contributor, russian-mosin-nagant-forum.com
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